From Guild Wars Wiki
Guild Wars professions that primarily rely on attack skills and physical attacks; they also have enough armor to protect themselves in melee.Martial is the adjective describing those
 Martial details
- Armor: the basic armor of all martials have 70 and 80 armor rating.
- Weaponry: martial professions use axes, bows, daggers, hammers, scythes, spears, swords, shields, and pets.
- Martial weapon damage scales with both level and attribute points spent into mastery of the specific weapon.
 Pseudo-martial professions
Some of the caster professions can perform parallel functions as the martial professions by using specific builds:
- Mesmers can use Illusionary Weaponry-based builds.
- Ritualists can use Spirit's Strength-based builds.
- Elementalists can tank by using armor-boosting Earth Magic skills.
- The opposite of martial professions are the five caster professions.
- The game's artificial intelligence identifies a martial character as those wielding martial weapons. This affects the type of skill heroes, henchmen, and foes will use on allies and opponents. For example, Mesmers will cast Chaos Storm on assassins equipped with a staff and paragons carrying a bundle, but not on elementalists carrying a spear.